Abdul Khaleq Mandol
Abdul Khaleq Mandol was born in the 1940s. Since 1967, he was involved with Islami Chhatra Sangha, the student branch of the Islamic political party Jamaat-e-Islami. During the Bangladesh liberation war of 1971, he led the Razakar Bahini in Sarkhira. The Razakar was a paramilitary group, supported by Pakistan, which was opposed to the establishment of an independent Bangladesh. He is Ameer of Jamaat-e-Islami, the leader of Jamaat-e-Islami, in the Satkhira district.
On 8 August 1971, during the liberation war, the Razakar, directed by Khaleq Mandol, allegedly captured six marine commandos at the Betna River in the Assasuni sub-disctrict. They reportedly shot dead two of them and took the four others to the Razakar command office, the Diamond Hotel, to torture them. Sabdar Ali and his son Shahidul Ali were also allegedly brought to the Diamond Hotel and were never found again. In total Khaleq Mandol is accused of having killed six persons, torturing 14 individuals and raping two women in Satkhira Sadar and Ashashuni sub-districts.
Khaleq Mandol was arrest on 25 August 2015 following the Bangladeshi International Crimes Tribunal’s Prosecution’s petition.
On 16 June 2015, the International Crimes Tribunal opened an investigation against Khaleq Mandol. This investigation found evidence of his alleged involvement in the crimes of murder and rape during the liberation war. An arrest warrant was issued by the International Crimes Tribunal on 20 August 2015 and he was arrested later that month. He first appeared in front of the tribunal on 25 August 2015.
Formal complaints were filed on 19 March 2017. The probe was completed on 8 February 2017 and found that three other individuals were involved in the crimes committed during the liberation war: Abdullah Al Baki, Khan Rokonuzzaman and Jahirul Islam. The International Crimes Tribunal fixed the 15 April 2018 for the beginning of the trial against those four accused. Seven charges are held against him including: murder, torture, confinement and rape.
THE 1971 BANGLADESH LIBERATION WAR
The 1947 partition of India resulted in the emergence of the country of Pakistan out of two territories: West Pakistan (today’s Pakistan) and East Pakistan (today’s Bangladesh). As a response to the Awami League victory in the 1970 general elections, the Pakistan Army launched Operation Searchlight on 25 March 1971, a massive military operation designed to curb the nationalist movement in East Pakistan. The armed conflict became known as the “Liberation War” and lasted until 16 December 1971.
The conflict involved widespread killings and other atrocities –forced displacement, disappearances, destruction and confiscation of property, torture and sexual violence– carried out by the Pakistan Army with the assistance of religious and political groups from East and West Pakistan. The exact number of victims of the conflict is not established. Bangladeshi authorities claim that 3 million people were killed while a Pakistan Government investigation states the figure of 26,000. The conflict also led to a major humanitarian crisis, with eight to ten millions refugees fleeing to India. Sexual violence was allegedly used as a weapon of war, with an estimated 200.000 women victims of rape.
INTERNATIONAL CRIMES TRIBUNAL ACT (ICTA)
On 20 June 1973, the ICTA was adopted to provide for the prosecution of any persons for “crimes against humanity, genocide, crimes against peace, war crimes, violation of any humanitarian rules and any other crimes under international law” committed in Bangladesh. The ICTA, using the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal Charter as a template, was to serve as a basis for a national tribunal.
However, efforts ended with the military coup of 1975. The new regime also repealed the 1972 Collaborator’s Act, which had been designed to bring to account those who had collaborated with the Pakistan Army. As a result, prosecutions of “collaborators” who did not fall under the 30 November 1973 amnesty were stopped, and all those detained and convicted were pardoned and released.
INTERNATIONAL CRIMES TRIBUNAL (ICT)
In 2008, the ICTA was resuscitated in the election manifesto of the Awami League. In 2009, the elected Awami League government adopted a resolution to initiate the establishment of a civilian court, which led to the 2009 amendment of the ICTA. In March 2010, the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) was set up and its Rules of Procedure were adopted on 15 July 2010.
The ICT has generated criticism from the international community, including the UN Working Group on arbitrary detention, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and the US Ambassador-at-large for War Crimes Issues. This criticism mainly addresses the lack of fair trial standards. The European Union has also voiced its concern with regards to the potential application of the death penalty.
Several legislative and executive orders granted immunity to groups involved in the 1971 Liberation War. In February 1973, shortly before the ICTA, the Bangladesh National Liberation Struggle (Indemnity) Order granted immunity to all freedom fighters for acts committed in connection with the “Liberation Struggle”. On 30 November 1973, a general amnesty was declared for all Bangladesh citizens who had collaborated with the Pakistan Army, with the exception of those accused of murder, rape, arson or genocide. Finally, the early 1974 tripartite agreement organised the return of Pakistani prisoners of wars, including those accused of committing war crimes, without charging them.
The ICTA was, however, never repealed. It provides for the prosecution of Bangladeshi nationals who were not granted immunity for international crimes committed during the Liberation War.