Alfons Noviks

20.04.2016 ( Last modified: 10.06.2016 )
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facts

Alfons Noviks was born in 1908.

In 1940, as the USSR had just annexed Latvia, he became People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of Soviet Latvia. As such he was the head of the State Security and of the NKVD (formerly KGB).

Between 1940 and 1953, he is believed to have been actively involved in numerous deportations carried out on behalf of the USSR. Over 100’000 Latvians are believed to have been deported to Siberia, and around 150’000 Lithuanians and Estonians have been forced to exile by this policy.

While acting as Commissar of Internal Affairs, Alfons Noviks has allegedly signed many deportation orders. It is alleged that he was the mastermind of the 1949 to 1953’s deportations, of which he personally ordered 41’544 in 1949 only. Overall, he is believed to be responsible for tens of thousands of deportations.

He received the Red Flag medal for the 1949 deportations, military decoration given for acts of valor on the battlefield.

He retired from the KGB in the 1950’ as a Major-general.

Until his arrest in March 1994, he had resumed a normal life in Riga.

 

legal procedure

Alfons Noviks was arrested in Riga in March 1994.

He was indicted under a 1993 Latvian law on genocide for having signed deportation orders.

During the trial, he acknowledged being responsible for the deportations, but only insofar as he was following orders.

On 13 December 1995, a Riga District Court found him guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity. The Court also found him guilty of ordering the torture and execution of political prisoners, and of personally taking part in torture, property confiscation and other crimes. He was sentenced to life in prison.

Alfons Noviks lodged an appeal against his conviction on 30 January 1996.

He died in prison on 12 March 1996.

spotlight

The conviction of Alfons Noviks for genocide was the first to occur in Latvia after the soviet era.