Hosni Mubarak

18.04.2016 ( Last modified: 25.08.2017 )
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Facts

Mohammed Hosni Saïd Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr-el-Meselha, governorate of Menufeya, Egypt.

On 13 October 1981, Mubarak was elected President of the Arab Republic of Egypt. He was re-elected consecutively in 1987, 1993 and 1999 and maintained his position of President of Egypt continuously until February 2011. In this role, Mubarak acted as supreme commander of the military forces and head of the executive branch of the government.

On 25 January 2011, anti-government protests arose in Cairo, Alexandria and other major Egyptian cities including El-Sheikh Zayed, Al-Salon, Ismalia, Medinet El-Fayoum and Shbin Elkoum. The protests lasted until 11 February 2011 when Mubarak resigned from his presidential post.

During the riot, more than 800 protestors were killed and thousands of protestors were seriously injured by Egyptian police in the course of law enforcement operations.

legal procedure

In April 2011, Mubarak was arrested by Egyptian authorities pending investigations on a murder charge.

On 24 May 2011, Public Prosecution in Cairo formally indicted Mubarak, and other six high-ranking officials of Egypt Ministry of Interior and former Minister Habib al-Adly, with complicity in murder of 225 protestors and attempted murder of 1800 protesters in various Egyptian governorates between 25 January and 31 January 2011.

On 3 August 2011, Mubarak pleaded not guilty to all charges.

On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was convicted by the Cairo Criminal Court of being an accomplice in murder as he failed to take reasonable measures, in his capacity of President of Egypt, to prevent the killings of the Tahrir Square protesters. Mubarak was sentenced to life imprisonment.

On 13 January 2013, the Court of Cassation of Egypt granted Mubarak’s appeal, quashed the conviction and ordered a retrial. Specifically, the court of first instance was found to have erred in law by configuring criminal responsibility for murder by omission as the criminal responsibility could only have taken place through affirmative actions.

On 11 May 2013, the retrial before the Criminal Court of Cairo commenced.

On 22 August 2013, was transferred to a military hospital in Cairo for army personnel.

On 29 November 2014, the Cairo Criminal Court dismissed the murder charges against Mubarak as it found the Prosecution’s decision to include Mubarak in the original indictment as politically motivated.

On 4 June 2015, the Court of Cassation of Egypt granted the Prosecution’s appeal on errors of law against the Criminal Court’s dismissal and order a new retrial.

On November 2015, the retrial against Mubarak commenced before the Court of Cassation of Egypt.

On 2 March 2017, the Court of Cassation of Egypt acquitted Mubarak from all charges.

On 13 March 2017, Mubarak was released from detention by Egyptian authorities.

Fact Sheet
Name: Hosni Mubarak
Nationality: Egyptian
Context: Egypt
Charges: complicity in murder
Status: Acquitted
Judgement Place: Egypt
Particulars: arrested by Egyptian authorities in 2011; charged with complicity in murder and attempted murder by Public Prosecution in Cairo on 24 May 2011; convicted of being an accomplice to murder by the Cairo Criminal Court on 2 June 2012; conviction quashed and retrial ordered by the Court of Cassation of Egypt on 13 January 2013; charges dismissed by Cairo Criminal Court on 29 November 2014; dismissal rejected and retrial ordered by Court of Cassation on 4 June 2015; acquitted of all charges by the Court of Cassation on 2 March 2017; released from detention by Egyptian authorities on 13 March 2017.