Isaac Kamali is accused of having actively taken part in the 1994 massacres as he was working as an agent of the Minister of Public Works and Energy. He allegedly participated in the organization of the killings, providing weapons and vehicles to the Interahamwe militia. He is also alleged to have directly participated in massacres.
In 2003, a Rwandan court convicted Kamali in absentia for his role in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. The Rwandan authorities sent an extradition request to France, where Kamali had moved after the genocide.
In June 2007, Kamali was arrested in a Paris airport due to an Interpol Red Notice. The French authorities rejected the Rwandan extradition request in 2008.
In 2009, the French Specialized Unit for the prosecution of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and torture within the Paris Tribunal (integrated in 2019 within the newly created French National Anti-Terrorist Prosecution Office) opened an investigation against Kamali, after the Collectif des Parties Civiles pour le Rwanda launched a complaint in February 2009. The investigation unit travelled to Rwanda, Mali and Benin to collect evidence.
On 16 September 2021, the French authorities indicted Kamali and placed him under judicial surveillance for his alleged involvement in genocide and crimes against humanity.