Jean-Claude Duvalier was born on 3 July 1951, in port-au-Prince, Haiti. Between 1971 and 1986 he was the 41th President of the Haitian Republic.
When he was 19, after the death of his father Francois Duvalier, he took the power, thus becoming the youngest head of state of the world. He declared himself president for life.
His presidency was marked by a dictatorship characterized by repeated violations of human rights, supported by a militia known as “Tonton Macoutes.” Like the regime of his father, his 15 years as head of Haiti have been filled with massive arbitrary arrests and imprisonment of political opponents, enforced disappearances, summary executions, etc… Many political prisoners were victims of torture.
Some historians believe that successive regimes of Francois and Jean-Claude Duvalier caused, reportedly, more than 60,000 victims.
On 7 February 1986, an insurgency ended the Duvalier regime. He was then forced into exile in France. He fled on board of an U.S. Air Force aircraft to land at Grenoble in France, taking with him hundreds of millions of dollars. The same day, hundreds of Tonton Macoutes were massacred by an angry population.
After 25 years in exile, on 16 January 2011 Jean-Claude Duvalier decided to go back to Haiti. Two days after his arrival he was indicted first for corruption, embezzlement of public funds and criminal conspiracy, and then for crimes against humanity.