Jiang Zemin was born in 1926 in Yangzhou, China (PRC). In 1983, he became a member of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). He continued his career within the party until he became Secretary General in 1989, until 2002. Jiang was the President of the People’s Republic of China from 1993 to 2003. He also served as the President of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, which allowed him to become a highly influential figure in foreign policy and national security.
In the late 1980s, Jiang, as a member of the Central Committee of the CCP contributed to discussions dealing with uprisings in Tibet, and the decisions taken by the Chinese state to deal with this situation. On 8 March 1989 the martial law was ruled by Hu Jintao and imposed to Tibetan people until 1990.
A report by the International Commission of Jurists (1997) concluded that the repression in Tibet increased in 1994, when high-ranked Chinese officials, including Shi, chose to adopt a new strategy for the country. From then, the number of Chinese migrants to Tibet increase drastically, tighter controls on religious activities were imposed, a strong smear campaign against the Dalaï Lama and his religious and political influence was lead, the surveillance was increased, as well as the number of political and arbitrary arrests, and widespread suppression of protests.
On 28 June 2005, the Tibetan Support Committee (Comité de Apoyo al Tibet), the Foundation “House of Tibet” (Fundacion Casa del Tibet) and Thubten Wangchen, a Tibetan in exile, filed a criminal complaint against eight defendants (including Deng Delyun, Chen Kuyian; Hu Jintao; Jiang Zemin; Li Peng; Ren Rong; Yin Fatang; and Qiao Shi,) before the Spanish National Court (Audiencia Nacional) on the basis of the principle of universal jurisdiction for crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, torture and terrorism, committed against Tibetans in the late 1980s and 1990s.
Given his role as the Chinese President in control of Chinese policy on Tibet, Jiang was accused of genocide and crimes against humanity for authorising the killings which took place in Tibet, and for having promoted the massive Chinese colonization in Tibet.