Qiao Shi was born in December 1924 in the
Zheijang province, China, under the name of Jiang Zhitong.
Shi studied in Shanghai, China and he
joined the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) as a student in August 1940. He
changed his name to Jiang Qioshi in order to facilitate his infiltration mission.
In 1963, Shi began to work for the central International Liaison Department of
the CCP who were in charge of foreign policy. During the Chinese Cultural
Revolution between 1966 and 1976, Shi reverted to his real name in order to
avoid persecution. In 1982, Shi simultaneously became head of the central
International Liaison Department and deputy member of the secretariat of the
central committee of the CCP. From 1985 to 1998, Shi directed the central
committee and was then in charge of intelligence and national security. From
1987 to 1997 Shi became a member of the permanent Politburo committee, the highest
political body within the CCP. From 27 March 1993 to 16 March 1998 he was alsoChairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress
(in China), the legislative body of the CCP. It was the third higher political
position in China. On 16 March 1998, Shi stepped down from his posts.
In the late 1980s, Shi, as Head of Security
and the Armed Forces, contributed to discussions dealing with uprisings in
Tibet, and the decisions taken by the Chinese state to deal with this situation.
On 8 March 1989 the martial law was ruled by Hu Jintao and imposed to Tibetan
people until 1990.
A report by the International Commission of
Jurists (1997) concluded that the repression in Tibet increased in 1994, when high-ranked
Chinese officials, including Shi, chose to adopt a new strategy for the
country. From then, the number of Chinese migrants to Tibet increase drastically,
tighter controls on religious activities were imposed, a strong smear campaign
against the Dalaï Lama and his religious and political influence was lead, the surveillance
was increased, as well as the number of political and arbitrary arrests, and
widespread suppression of protests.
On 28 June 2005, the Tibetan Support
de Apoyo al Tibet), the Foundation “House of Tibet” (Fundacion
Casa del Tibet) and Thubten Wangchen, a Tibetan in
exile, filed a criminal complaint against eight defendants (including Deng
Delyun, Chen Kuyian; Hu Jintao; Jiang Zemin; Li Peng; Ren Rong; Yin Fatang; and
Qiao Shi,) before the Spanish National Court (Audiencia Nacional) on the basis
of the principle of universal jurisdiction for crimes of genocide, crimes
against humanity, torture and terrorism, committed against Tibetans in the late
1980s and 1990s.